Bringing It Home: NYS Curriculum Connections
Historical Society of the Town of Warwick
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Warwick has a rich fossil record:  Quite a few mastodon skeletons and other prehistoric remains have been found in the black dirt. 
The very first recorded mastodon remains found in North America, a set of weighty molars that seventeenth-century colonists mistook for the teeth of human giants, were found in New York State.
More on Peale’s mammoth, found near Newburgh in 1801, and discoveries in Montgomery:
http://www.tomca.org/mastodon/montgomery_mastodon.html
Mammoth discovery in Chester in 1817:
http://www.hrvh.org/cdm4/item_viewer.php?CISOROOT=/chs&CISOPTR=308
“Glacial Lake Fairchild” is a name for the huge lake that covered the Drowned Lands and adjacent areas after the glaciers retreated.  It honors Herman Leroy Fairchild,  a geologist who studied and mapped  the Pleistocene glacial  period in New York State in the 1920’s and 30’s.  The name appears to have been given by scientist Gordon Connally. (information provided by Dr. Guy Robinson).
Notes from
“Archaelogical and Paleoenvironmental Investigations in the Dutchess Quarry Caves”
by R. E. Funk & D. W. Steadman
extracted by S. Gardner, 2007
The Black Dirt area and its wetlands are famous for their abundance of remains of late Pleistocene mammals, mainly mastodons. (Mammut americanum), ground sloths (Megalonyx jeffersoni), prehistoric horse, bear and moose elk (Cervalces scotti).  The geology of the area was affected by the glaciers that covered much of the north.  When the glaciers retreated, they formed debris piles, or moraines.  Pellet’s Island, in the Black Dirt region, is a local example of an ice-retreat moraine.  This blocked water flow, and lakes and bogs resulted that eventually formed the Black Dirt.  A bog on top of a similar moraine at New Hampton has yielded fossil pollen nearly 13,000 years old. Prior to being drained by Euroamericans, the area teemed with life that would have been attractive to prehistoric peoples.
Beginning in 1964, a search for cave sites and rock shelters was begun here, spurred by the scarcity of evidence of the earliest human inhabitants in the Northeast.  Our area had been long known to be unusually productive in surface finds of the fluted projectile points that were produced by the Paleo-Indians. 
The quest for previously undiscovered and undisturbed sites led researchers, following the advice of  Henry Malley, to the limestone outcrops on the northwest side of Mount Lookout.  It is near the Village of Florida, in the Town of Goshen  It had been quarried extensively since the 1930’s.  Possible overhangs and openings were tested, and when rock falls were cleared away a large deep cave later named Dutchess Quarry Cave No. 1 was found. Caribou bones left in the caves have been radio carbon dated to over 12,000 years old, one of the oldest dates attributed to human occupation of North America.  Cumberland type arrowheads found there as well, which are generally dated about 10,500 years old.  Controversy continues over whether the older bones were carried in by humans or scavengers.
Excavations by the Orange County Chapter of the New York State Archaeological Association took place in 1965 and 1966.  Some evidence found suggested that it had been used by humans occasionally for over 10,000 years.  There were many animal remains, including bones of the caribou; another cave had been removed by quarrying in the 1930’s and artifacts had been found but scattered or destroyed.  Much of the original outcropping has been lost to quarrying activities.
In 1974 another surge of exploration was begun.  A ground-penetrating meter was used to search for other possible cave sites. Seven additional chambers were found, their openings often hidden by rock falls.  Three of the seven, Dutchess Quarry Caves No. 2, 7 and 8, were found to be archaeologically significant, but results were not published and most of the data was lost.
In 1987, the outcrops were again surveyed, using ground-penetrating radar and explorations continued. 
What was found in the caves
In addition to the late Pleistocene/early Holocene human artifacts found at Cave Number 1, the several caves on the outcrop that were excavated yielded animal bones of the ancestors of many of today’s common local species, and also some of those that are extinct or are gone from Warwick. These include Rangifer tarandus, (caribou), Ectopistes migratorious (passenger pigeon), Acipenser (sturgeon), Castoroides onioensis (giant beaver), Platygonus compressus (flat headed peccary), Cervus canadensis (elk). Many of these remains are dated to between 10,000 and 12,000 years old. 
The Drowned Lands of the Wallkill supported a vast array of species, and were part of the migration paths for them.  Fossil evidence here is helping study the progression of species and the enigma of why some species died out.
Scientist Guy Robinson studies these remains for evidence:
http://www.nrdc.org/onearth/06win/mammoth1.asp
Summary of Robinson article:
Paleoecologist Guy Robinson of Fordham University has studied evidence of mammoth and other big game hunts in the Black Dirt area.  He says that the evidence points to the idea that over hunting was a major cause of their extinction at the end of the Pleistocene era. Prior theories postulated that the extinction was due to climate change, that the warming of the earth caused this extinction., but now some scientists believe a major contributing factor was the action of man.
 Radiocarbon dating is not precise, but the fact that these extinctions occurred around the time that the first spear points are being found in North America; recent data has made it clear the last of the mammoths and other ‘megafauna’ had disappeared before the heat wave that ended the Pleistocene. 
Robinson believes that by tracking the arrival of the humans and studying the evidence of climate change, it can clarify why they disappeared.  He works with ancient pollen and flecks of charcoal he digs up in the Black Dirt.  Fossil spores of a fungus that grows on the dung of large herbivores shows that they disappear from the sedimentary record just before charcoal marks of large fires—which he contends were set by man.
He has found the stomach contents of some mastodons from orange county and using his microscope, he can tell what kinds of plants grew near Lake Fairchild thousands of years ago, like alder pollen. Studying the preserved pollen, he can learn about long extinct ecosystems and the shifting patterns of plant communities.
He has found two dramatic shifts in the microfossil record.  First, the dung fungus disappears, then within a few hundred years, landscape fires increase tenfold.  In this Robinson sees that local populations of large grazing animals crashed when the first people arrive and found them to be easy prey.  Without the huge herbivores, fuel sources built up and fires lit by lightning and people burned larger and hotter than ever before.  There is no pollen shift during this time period, disproving the theory of climate change.
Archaeological evidence of Native Americans is found throughout Warwick.
Here we see:
An Iroquois pot found on a rock ledge above Greenwood Lake by Maude Storms around 1932.  It is a rare example of a large, intact vessel.  At one time it was exhibited at the Museum of the American Indian in New York (now a part of the Smithsonian), but its current location is unknown.
Pottery shards which washed up on the shores of Greenwood Lake collected by Frank Welles.  The village of Quampium was at the north end of the lake, and is now under water.
The village of Mistucky was across the fields next to what is now the Pioneer Restaurant.
A Native American burial ground was destroyed when Southern Lane was put in, photos of the disturbed grave sites by Jack Webster were destroyed in a fire.
This scraping & cutting tool was found on Bellvale Mountain.  It has two blunt sides to fit into the hand comfortably, and a very sharp, serrated edge on the left for cutting and scraping.
The recently opened Black Creek Historic Site in Vernon, is one of the most significant Lenape heritage sites.
The Native American population had been reduced by substantial numbers at the time that the first Europeans settled the valley.  At the time of settlement, the Minsi or Munsee, the northernmost branch of the Lenape, lived here.  There were many sites where they still lived, however.  Many of those remaining gradually migrated West. A few websites you can find out more: Lenape Language Sound Files: http://www.delawaretribeofindians.nsn.us/language.html
History of the Lenape: http://www.tolatsga.org/dela.html
Who Stole the Tee Pee? (interactive exhibit): http://www.nmai.si.edu/exhibitions/who_stole_the_teepee/indexfla.htm
“The Munsee originally occupied the headwaters of Delaware river in New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, extending south to Lehigh river, and also held the west bank of the Hudson from the Catskill mountains nearly to the New Jersey line. They had the Mahican and Wappinger on the north and east, and the Delaware on the south and southeast, and were regarded as the protecting barrier between the latter tribe and the Iroquois. Their council village was Minisink, probably in Sussex county, N. J. According to Ruttenber they were divided into the Minisink, Waoranec, Warranawonkong, Mamekoting, Wawarsink, and Catskill. The Minisink formed the principal division of the Munsee, and the two names have often been confounded. The bands along the Hudson were prominent in the early history of New York, but as white settlements increased most of them joined their relatives on the Delaware. In 1756 those remaining in New York were placed upon lands in Schoharie County and were incorporated with the Mohawk. By a fraudulent treaty, known as the "Walking Purchase," the main body of the Munsee was forced to remove from the Delaware about the year 1740, and settled at Wyalusing the Susquehanna on lands assigned them by the Iroquois. Soon after this they removed to Allegheny river, Pa., where some of them had settled as early as 1724. The Moravian missionaries had already begun their work among then. (see Missions; Moravians), and a considerable number under their teaching drew off from the tribe and became a separate organization. The others moved west with the Delaware into Indiana, where most of them were incorporated with that tribe, while others joined the Chippewa, Shawnee, and other tribes, so that the Munsee practically ceased to exist as an organized body. Many removed to Canada and settled near their relatives, the Moravian Indians.”
From Handbook of American Indians, 1906
The Indian deed that transferred the Wawayanda Patent lands was signed in March of 1702/03  The reason the date is often given like this is because the calendar changed in 1752.  Previously the New Year started in March, but it was changed to January.  Double dating was used in Great Britain, colonial British America, and British possessions to clarify dates occurring between 1 January and 24 March on years between 1582 and 1752.  In the ecclesiastical or legal calendar, March 25th was recognized as the first day of the year and was not double dated.
Researchers of colonial American ancestors will often see double dating in older records. Double dates were identified with a slash mark (/) representing the Old and New Style calendars, e.g., 1690/1691. Even before 1752 in colonial America, some educated clerks knew of the calendar change in Europe and used double dating to distinguish between the calendars.   The picture above is how the date is written on this document.
Benjamin Aske was one of the patentees, and he later claimed his portion in the Warwick Valley, including the Rt. 94 corridor area, and called it Warwick, presumably after his home in Warwickshire, England.
Colonial era signers of patents and land deeds often could not read and write, and so developed an abbreviated signature, or “mark” that they used.  In this document we see both the Native Americans and the colonists using marks. This document is a copy of the original, from appearances a fair copy made at the time, and also bearing original signatures.  Instead of red wax seals at the end of each name, another person (likely Lancaster Syms) has attested to the signatures by writing his initials.  The lack of wax seals on this and another copy of the deed lends strength to the argument of some scholars that the deed was a fraud.
Chuckhass’ signature appears as a winding curlicue– We speculate perhaps because his tribe’s land included the winding stream we call Wawayanda today. Several versions of the origin of this name exist, but the one that makes the most sense is that it derives from the Lenape words for ‘winding stream’.
Colonial spelling– not standardized even in official documents; much of population not literate
This document provides proof of
The early settlement of Aske and others in the valley, and that it was called “Warwick” by this date. The oral tradition that early residents, in this case Lawrence Decker, learned and spoke the native language. There was still a significant population of the Minsi tribe here at time of settlement by colonists.
The adoption of European names by some of the local Native Americans.
The document is part of the court records about a land dispute elsewhere
Notice of the sale of Aske’s farm at Warwick, 2000 acres.  From the New York Weekly Journal,  12/25/1738.
Colonial “roads” could range from foot paths to the official “King’s Road”.  This road was created 40 rods wide, (according to this transcription by Genevieve Van Duzer)  A rod is 16.5 feet, so while it is unlikely that the trees and brush were cleared for this width, this emphasizes that colonial travelers felt the need for wide margins where they could see, in order to feel safe. Many “Kings Roads” were created during the French and Indian Wars as the need to move troops and ordinance about quickly increased.
The Warwick portion of the road began within Joseph Perry’s land (he owned the area near Wickham Lake, which in early days was called “Perry’s Pond”); Thomas Blain’s property was in the vicinity of the Chateau Hathorn and Shoprite, the Double Kill crosses the present Rt. 94 at New Milford, and Thomas DeKay’s house was over the line into New Jersey.
Environmental changes are implied by this document:  Lands were being cleared, fences erected.  One story from colonial days that is in Under Old Rooftrees, from colonial days:
“One landed proprietor was wont, as he sat before his blazing
hearth, to muse on the prospects of his descendants for fuel and grieve for fear the wood might be exhausted and future want exist.
Sometimes the good old man, although owning broad acres of
timber, would remove an extra brand, saying, "We must be very
careful; I don't know what our children will do for wood, it's going so
fast."
Colonial Migration & Culture
Many of Warwick’s early European colonists migrated here from Connecticut, Bergen & Rockland counties, Long Island, etc.  Early settlers included Dutch (DeKay), French (Demarest/Des Marest, Hasbrouck), English (Aske, Wood), Scottish(Burroughs/Burris, Baird), Swiss (Wisner/Weesenor), and other nationalities. It was an interior area, not having as much traffic as nearer the Hudson early on.  The topography dictated the routes of travel.
Oral History:   “A Sister and a Brother” in Under Old Rooftrees details of a journey by a young girl and her brother from an unhappy home in Connecticut, overland alone to Warwick.
French and Indian War,  persons killed by Indians (a few examples)
Sept. 19, 1757
Tidd, James—killed by Indians Friday last at the Minisinks; Philadelphia dispatch of Sept. 15.
October 24, 1757
Letts, Daniel, living near William Decker’s, on road from Showangounck to the Van Curers—killed there Oct 22 by Indians.
May 29, 1758
Cole, Mrs. Nicholas, and son Jacob, age about 10—taken by Indians near Minisink, but escaped. Cole, Mrs. Nicholas, son-in-law of (age 18), eldest daughter of (age 13, son (age 8), youngest daughter (age 4)—killed by Indians May 16 near Minisink.
Walling, Widow, daughter of, living near Fort Gardner, between Goshen and Minisink—killed there Thursday last by Indians.
The NY/NJ Border was under dispute for a long time period.  Much of Warwick was at one time claimed by New Jersey.  Residents in the “Gore” tract would sometimes get caught between the different jurisdictions claiming taxes from them.  Thomas DeKay, a Dutch immigrant, whose land was on the border, (Borderland Farm, DeKay Rd., etc.) was continually harassed by NJ officials  trying to collect money for his land.
The border dispute with New Jersey was settled in 1769.
In colonial times, the letter “s” was often printed as an “F” (look at “Goshen”)
A. The colonial government awarded land grants, or patents. 
 Local Warwick land grants were:
Samuel Staats, who built a house here in 1700 (possibly the oldest standing house in Orange County), on the grounds of what is now Applewood Orchard off Four Corners Rd.  See http://www.applewoodorchardsandwinery.com/History.htm Cheesecocks Patent in 1702, covered some sections of Warwick, primarily in eastern part of town. Wawayanda Patent in 1703 (this is the Patent signed by Benjamin Aske and Warwick’s local chief, Chuckhass)
B. The ill-defined boundaries of sometimes overlapping patents resulted in many lawsuits, the most well know of which is the Wawayanda & Cheescocks Patent Dispute, whose opposing lawyers were Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr.  The case was argued at Yelverton’s Inn, in Chester in 1785.
C. Stories of daily life found in “Under Old Roof Trees” (see extract handout).
D. The strategic target in Warwick that seems to have been prominent in the minds of the British was the Sterling Iron Works.
Francis Baird built his tavern at an intersection of this road and another from Goshen; other tavern keepers of the colonial era were Jacobus Post (Edenville, Union Corners Rd.) and John Smith (near corner of Main St. and Colonial Ave.)
Improving Roads & the Revolution:
“The increasingly technological wars of the British, the French, and their Native American allies in the eighteenth century meant new roads had to be built and existing ones widened and improved.  Wide roads were necessary to move large bodies of regular troops, their supplies, and seige cannon.  Another force driving improvments of roads in the mid-century was the improvement of postal service after British authorities finaly established a postal service voereing all the Continental colonies in 1751…Benjamin Franklin, appointed co-deputy postmaster in 1753, was particularly active, traveling extensively through the northern colonies, inspecting post offices and suggesting new routes and procedures.  He devised a crude cyclometer that he hitched to the back of his chaise for measuring the distances along the roads and laid out, or encouraged others to lay out, milestones.  Improvement of land communication between the colonies was one force contributing to colonial unity before and during the Revolution.” (Excerpt from Science and Technology in Colonial America by William E. Burns, p. 87)
Two official land routes went between Boston and Philadelphia
The largest went on either side of the Hudson and down to New York City.
The secondary route went through Goshen and Warwick, one of “The Kings Highways”. Growth in the colonies was causing problems as well as opportunities.  The French and Indian War has left a debt that the English government wanted paid.  English industries wanted to maintain control over this growing market, as well.
To an enterprising man looking for a place to settle, the stream with its great water-power would be the main attraction. Besides, there was ore in those mountains.
One of the first to take advantage of those two assets was a man named Lawrence Scrawley or Crowley a blacksmith, who, in 1750, owned a plating forge to be worked with a tilt hammer. It was unlawful to have such an industry in the colonies, and its existence had to be reported to the King. Governor George Clinton wrote that the forge had been there about four or five years but was not being used in 1750; also that it was the only one in the Province of New York. He described its location as being at a place called Wawayanda, about 26 miles from Hudson River. At the time, and for some decades after, the stream was known as the Wawayanda; and that name was also applied to the land bordering it. We cannot say where Lawrence Scrawley/Crowley came from or what became of him (Florence Tate)
Reference: Text of Clinton’s letter is from p. 580, Ruttenber & Clark’s History of Orange County
The Iron Act, strictly Importation, etc. Act 1750 (Statute 23 Geo. II c. 23) was one of the legislative measures introduced by the British Parliament, seeking to restrict manufacturing activities in British colonies, particularly in north America, and encourge manufacture to take place in Great Britain.
The Act contained several provisions, applying from 24 June 1750:
Duty on the import of pig iron from America should cease.
Duty on bar iron imported to London should cease.
Such bar iron might be carried coastwise or by land from there to Naval dockyards, but otherwise not beyond 10 miles from London.
The iron must be marked with its place of origin.
No mill or engine for slitting or rolling iron or any plating forge to work with a tilt hammer or any furnace for making steel should be erected in America.
Colonial governors were required to certify what mills of these types already existed.
Other References: Pioneer Iron Works by Mary Stetson Clarke
Science and Technology in Colonial America by William E. Burns.
Visitors to Warwick:
Transcribed from the Notebook of W. B. Sayer:

May 20, 1779 Third New Hampshire Regiment under Col Henry Dearborn stopped here for breakfast (This regiment saved the day in the battle with the Indians near Elmira NY under Gen Sullivan.)

Oct. 20 1779 After the Battle at Elmira NY Capt. Phillip Du Bois Beiver? Bevier? & Lieut. Frees of the 3rd Regiment Continental Line under Col. Van Courtland stayed all night here.
Rev. James Manning a Baptist Minister from Providence, RI took dinner here Sept. 12, 1779 with Francis Baird.

In 1777 Col. Daniel Morgan’s men after the Battle of Saratoga NY stopped here (note: documentation not yet confirmed)

The journal of Captain Daniel Livermore says Thursday May 20, 1779:
“This morning the weather still continued rainy necessity obliged us to continue the march, the traveling is extremely bad, and 9 o’clock made a halt at a small village called Warwick, NY, six miles. Here we took breakfast at Baird’s Tavern, from whence we proceeded on the march to Hardiston, NJ 7 miles .”These troops were on the march to join Gen. Sullivan’s expedition against the Indians.

Diary of Ensign Daniel Gorkin2nd New Hampshire Regiment of Gen. Sullivan’s Expedition 1779.May 20, 1779—To Warwick NY from Chester NY 14 miles.May 21-Rainy day did not march. This place Warwick NY is 4 miles from the New Jersey line.May 22- Did not march.May 23—To Sussex Court House NJ, here are 4 or 5 very good houses.The houses from the North River (at Newburgh NY to this place) are small having large crops of wheat and rye. The men do but little work. The women great shots, marched 22 miles. (The 2d New Hampshire Regiment spent 3 nights and 2 days at Warwick NY—WBS?)

Capt. Daniel Livermore says on Saturday Oct. 3, 1779: The troops leave Sussex NJ at 9 o’clock and march toward Warwick NY about 14 miles and camp. Sunday Oct. 3, 1779 today the troops proceed on the march and encamp near Warwick Church (now 1927 corner of Galloway & Forester Aves. On land that 1927 belongs to Clarence Forshee). Monday Nov. 1, 1779 this day for want of wagons the march is deferred until 12 o’clock. Proceed over the mountains to Pompton. Roads very bad…
2nd New Hampshire Regiment of Gen. Sullivan’s Expedition 1779.
May 20, 1779—To Warwick NY from Chester NY 14 miles.
May 21-Rainy day did not march. This place Warwick NY is 4 miles from the New Jersey line.
May 22- Did not march.
May 23—To Sussex Court House NJ, here are 4 or 5 very good houses.
The houses from the North River (at Newburgh NY to this place) are small having large crops of wheat and rye. The men do but little work. The women great shots, marched 22 miles.
(The 2d New Hampshire Regiment spent 3 nights and 2 days at Warwick NY)
Diary of Dr. Increase Mathhews describing a summer journey, passes through Orange County, including the Edenville area of Warwick. Relevant page for our area is 35. Reference is to the establishment of Jacobus Post, near Edenville, known to be an inn.
FULL TEXT OF ENTRY:
"Sunday July 1, 1798. Stopped at Pasts (this is certainly a misread of "Posts" by the journal transcriber) Warwick 9 miles...."
Early in Jan., 1778, John Sloss Hobart, Henry Wisner, John Hathorn, and Zeph. Platt, delegated for that purpose by the State Congress, Generals Putnam and George Clinton, the Lieut. Col. of Engineers, Capt. Machin, and several other military gentlemen, met at Poughkeepsie, to consult about fortifying and obstructing the Hudson; and the works located at and near West Point, were placed there in accordance with their views. Generals Schuyler, Lee, Sterling, and a few other officers, were also consulted on some occasions, about fortifying the river.
Iron mine activity deforested great areas of the mountains around Warwick.

Visitors to Warwick from Notebook of W. B. Sayer, Cont’d.
Journal of Major Grant
Journal of Sergant Major George Grant of the 3rd New Jersey Regiment Sullivan’s Expedition of 1779. He writes as follows of the return of the expedition:
Oct. 30, 1779. To Sussex Court House NJ.
Oct 31 To Wallins Tavern
Nov. 1 To Warwick NY.
Nov. 2 Parted with the Western Army
Nov. 3 Marched to Sterling Works.
From this journal it seems the whole Western army was at Warwick NY on Nov. 1, 1779. Oct 17,1779 it was at Easton PA and Gen. George Washington visited it. Oct. 27, 1779 it crossed the Delaware River at Easton, PA.
Diary of Ensign Daniel Gorkin

In 1779 Gen. Washington passed thro Warwick NY in John Kays was with Gen. Washington and he stated that they came by way of Warwick NY and Vernon NJ, crossed the Mts. At Sparta, thence to Morristown NJ where they joined G.en Lafayette.

In the fall of 1780 Lady Martha Washington stayed all night here on her way from Newburgh, NY to Mount Vernon (note: documentation not yet confirmed)

July 17, 1782 Gen. George Washington and his two aides Col. Jonathan Trumbull, Jr. and Major Benjamin Walker stopped here and bought 2 shillings worth of grog (confirmed in Papers of George Washington)

Dec. 6, 1782 Marquis de Chastellux stayed here all night with his aides and said of Warwick:
From his “Travels in North America in the years 1780-82”. The Marquis De Chastellux was one of the 40 members of the French Academy and Major General in the French army service under Count Rochambeau.
Vol. 2, p. 302 (Dec. 6, 1782?) Traveling from West Point NY to Philadelphia Penn. Via Easton he says:
“I still kept skirting this ridge of mountains which separate this country from the Clove—
Warwick NY where I slept a pretty large place for so wild a country, is 12 miles from Chester NY and 28 miles from Newburgh NY. I lodged here in a very good stone inn, kept by Mr. Smith…The American Army having for 2 years past had their winter quarters near West Point NY, Mr. Smith imagined with reason that this road would be more frequented than that of Paramus and he had taken the inn of Mr. Francis Baird at whose house we stopped next day for breakfast. ..The next morning Dec. 7, 1782 we set out before breakfast and the snow began to fall as soon as we got on horse back which did not cease till we got to Baird’s (new, Vernon) Tavern. This house was not near so good as the other, but the workmen were busy augmenting it. On enquiring of Mr. Francis Baird, who is a Scotchman, the reason of his quiting his good house at Warwick NY to keep this inn, he informed me that it was a settlement he was forming for his son-in-law and that as son as he had put it in order he should return to his house in Warwick NY. This Mr. Francis Baird had long lived as a merchant at New York City and even sold books, which I learnt from observing some good ones at his house, amongst others “Human Prudence”, which I purchased of him. It ceased snowing at noon and the weather moderated.”

John Hathorn (January 9, 1749February 19, 1825) was an American politician who was a member of the United States House of Representatives from New York. John Hathorn was born in Wilmington, Delaware, January 9, 1749. He completed preparatory studies and became a surveyor and a school teacher. He moved to Warwick, NY, then a part of the Precinct of Goshen and married Elizabeth Welling. He was a captain of the Colonial Militia, and became a colonel of the Fourth Orange County (N.Y.) Regiment February 7, 1776, and served throughout the Revolutionary War. On September 26, 1786, Hathorn became a brigadier general of the Orange County Militia, and on October 8, 1793 a major general of state militia. He served on the committe appointed to determine an effective location for the Great Chain across the Hudson which prevented the British from advancing up the River, and himself wrote the report. He was one of the commanders of the Battle of Minisink. Hathorn was a member of the State assembly in 1778, 1780, 1782 – 1785, 1795, and 1805, and served as speaker in 1783 and 1784. Hathorn served terms in the State senate 1786 – 1790 and 1799 – 1803 and was a member of the Council of Appointment in 1787 and 1789. He was elected to the Continental Congress in December 1788 but no further sessions were held. He was elected to the First Congress (March 4, 1789March 3, 1791), an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1790 to the Second Congress and in 1792 to the Third Congress. He was elected as a Republican to the Fourth Congress (March 4, 1795March 3, 1797). He was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1796. Hathorn engaged in mercantile pursuits until the time of his death. Hathorn died in Warwick, New York February 19, 1825 and is now buried in Warwick Cemetery. His stone home still stands on Hathorn Rd., with his and his wife's initials worked in red brick on the south gable of the house.
In World War II the United States liberty ship SS John Hathorn was named in his honor.
Stories Told Over the Years: (Oral Traditions) Washington
 (notebook of W. B. Sayer) After passing through Warwick just east of what is now 1927 Forester apartments (Wawayanda House, nearly opposite intersection of Forester Ave. with Colonial Ave.—Sue G.) near where Ms. Thomas Nesbit now 1927 lives, Gen. George Washington passed an old negro who raised his hat and bowed very low, Gen. Washington returned the salute and when asked by his aides why he did so said he "would not be outdone in courtesy by an old negro slave."

During the Revolutionary War while New York City was in possession of the British communication between the Hudson & Delaware Rivers was kept thro Warwick.While Gen. George Washington with his army was lying a new Windsor in 1780, as was his custom at the close of a campaign he send his aid-de-Camp to Mount Vernon VA to escort Lady Washington to the camp. She usually traveled in a plain chariot, accompanied by postillions in White and Scarlet liveries. On her return to Mt. Vernon she passed thro Warwick Ny stopping over night in the fall of 1780 at the tavern. David Christie, then a boy living some 2 miles north of Warwick NY and who afterwards represented us in the Legislature, in after years told the story how he came to the village to get a plow share mended and learning that Lady Washington was about to proceed on her journey, stationed himself in the bushes on the bank of Longhouse Creek near where the First National Bank building stands and saw the grand equipage as it passed bearing the good Martha Washington toward Mt. Vernon.
This map was compiled in 1933 by Elizabeth Van Duzer, from the memoirs of Henry Pelton about the location of families when he first migrated here.
A great deal of what we know about Warwick history has been passed down in stories and memoirs.  Memoirs are in part primary sources, recorded by eyewitnesses to the actual events.  While not considered “facts” in the sense of documents or objects, oral traditions more often than now contain factual material, which we attempt to verify through other sources.
For instance, the story of the witch “Penelope” has been handed down by several sources.
Henry Pelton wrote a memoir listing where people lived in the Warwick Valley when he first moved there in 1805. 
Henry William Herbert (pen name Frank Forester) (April 3, 1807 - May 17, 1858), was an English novelist and writer on sport.
The son of the Hon. and Rev. William Herbert, Dean of Manchester (himself the son of Henry Herbert, 1st Earl of Carnarvon), Herbert was born in London.
He was educated at Eton College and at Caius College, Cambridge, where he graduated BA in 1830. To escape his debts, he emigrated to the United States, and from 1831 to 1839 taught Greek in a private school in New York City. In 1833 he started the American Monthly Magazine, which he edited, in conjunction with A. D. Patterson, till 1835.
In 1834 he published his first novel, The Brothers: a Tale of the Fronde, which was followed by a number of others that achieved popularity
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_William_Herbert
It was here (at Glenmere Lake)  that I saw the great flights of wild pigeons. I have watched them for hours, flying overhead - all going in one direction. Their flights were usually in the spring”. –George W. Parkinson, Warwick Dispatch 5/13/1914
“Pigeons were very plentiful in the early days of the town. Sometimes the air seemed almost darkened with the immense flocks of these birds. A farmer living near the village one morning bagged ninety-six in a short time in the woods. They had settled so thickly on the trees and bushes that he clubbed many down, wrung the necks of some, and every shot brought down numbers. Savory potpies, stews, broils and genuine pigeon-pies, in which the birds predominated over the crust, were plentiful in the humblest homes.” – Under Old Roof trees
“The feathers of pigeons (very plentiful in their season in early days)[14] were commonly cured and put in beds and pillows, and a superstition reigned that no poor soul could take easy flight from its lifelong house of clay if a single pigeon's feather were in the dying-bed.:-- Under Old Rooftrees
By 1720, 5,740 enslaved individuals lived in the colony of New York (16% of the total population) and about half that number lived in New Jersey. By the mid-1700s slavery was deeply entrenched in New York. In 1750, the enslaved population of New York was 11,014 (14% of the total population), nearly double the figure of 1720. It would be another fifty years before the number of enslaved Africans began to decrease rather than increase.
There is a series of books about the genealogy of Orange County black families by Robert Brennan.
William Henry Seward was born in 1801 in Florida, Orange County, New York. He was the fourth of six children born to Samuel S. and Mary J. Seward. After attending schools in Florida and Goshen, he attended Union College in Schenectady, graduating in 1820. In 1819, on a teaching sojourn to Georgia, the indignity of slavery first made an impression on him and later influenced him to become one of the most outspoken anti-slavery politicians of the time.
See biography on Seward House (Albany) website:
http://www.sewardhouse.org/biography/
Warwick’s Bloomer Girl – Lydia Sayer Hasbrouck by S. Gardner
On a fateful day in her young life, Lydia Sayer applied for admission to the Seward Institute in Florida.  The very intelligent, attractive, athletic, and independent -minded girl would have been eager to continue her education. One wonders if it had ever occurred to her that the practical garments she had adopted at an early age – long before Amelia Bloomer ever popularized them-- would be a problem.  But problem there was, and she never did attend Seward Institute. She was rejected because she refused to lay aside what would later be called “bloomers” for more traditional dress. “As I left…I fairly bathed my soul in an agony of tears and silent prayers,” she later said, “I registered a vow that I would stand or fall in the battle for women’s physical, political and educational freedom and equality.” Thereafter she became one of the most vocal and staunchest supporters of women’s dress reform and suffrage in America.
Lydia was born on Dec. 20, 1827 in Sayerville, a hamlet of Warwick near Bellvale.  She was the daughter of Benjamin Sayer and Rebecca Forshee.  As a child she was fearless, self-reliant, skilled in horsemanship and the domestic arts, and keenly interested in books and learning.  She finished her education elsewhere-- at Miss Galatian’s Select School, the Elmira High School, and Central College.  Around 1849 she became keenly interested in the health disciplines of hydropathy, or the ‘water cure’.  This social movement promoted what today would be called a holistic approach to health.  Water cure enthusiasts advocated a vegetarian diet, moderate exercise, sensible clothing, avoidance of alcohol, and exercise, along with cleansing the patient with a soothing wrap of wet sheets. Shortly after 1853 Lydia entered the Hygeia-Therapeutic College in New York City and graduated as a doctor of medicine.  
Dr. Lydia Sayer went to Washington D.C. and practiced there, lecturing in neighboring cities on the tyranny of fashion.  While there she became the Washington correspondent for the Middletown Whig Press, a paper with liberal and reformist positions on many issues. She eventually married its owner John Hasbrouck in a simple common-law ceremony at the Sayer home on July 27, 1856, less than a month after establishing a reformist newspaper of her own, The Sibyl. The only concession she made in her wedding garb was that her bloomer outfit was cut from white cloth. 
The archive of the Historical Society contains issues of The Sibyl from 1856 through1863.  Here one finds a wealth of information of interest to progressive minded ladies and gentlemen of the day:
“Ever since the agitation of Dress Reform, newspapers, physicians, and people in general have been convinced that the present style of dress was blighting to woman’s physical being; yet, with but few exceptions, none have shown themselves practical reformers….Upon this point we wish to be understood, in advocating Dress Reform.  It is merely as a physiological reform, to elevate the weakened stamina of the race, and it not to be engrafted in the woman’s rights movement toward the elective franchise.  Though we may sustain them all, yet this reform is individualized, and of a higher importance than all else; for until woman is physically freed from her bonds, she is unfitted, in a great measure, for the active duties of trade, or a profession, or the arena of political strife...”
“Most of the ladies who have retained the Reform Dress are wives and mothers.  Many had suffered from the effects of weight or pressure, until the weakened muscles cried for release..”
“…the Abbe de Deguessy observed in a sermon, ‘Women now-a-days forget, in the astonishing amplitude of their dresses, that the gates of Heaven are very narrow.’  This recalls an incident we witnessed the other Sabbath…A great rumpling, smashing and crushing startled us at the door, and looking around to see what the matter was, we witnessed a lady, well hoped and spangled, trying to crush the unwieldy folds, floating in heavy luxuriance over her rotund hoops.  At last she succeeded in clearing the door…She passed on up the borad aisle, filling it completely, and rattling her hoops and silks against either side.  Reaching the seat, she solved the dilemma of how she was to enter it, by crushing, and crowding, and folding, until at last she was safely seated.  It struck us as being and unprofitable task, this laboring so hard to make oneself uncomfortable.  Woman has great endurance, truly.”
--The Sibyl, Vol. 1, No. 2, July 15, 1856
Dr. Lydia continued her activities on behalf of women’s freedom on many fronts, as well as dress reform, for her entire life.  A glimpse of her personality and tenacity is seen in this article from the Franklin Repository and Transcript of Nov. 14, 1860:
“Mrs. Dr. Lydia Sayer Hasbrouck, of Orange County, New-York, who insists that a woman should not be taxed unless she is allowed to vote, has thought to shame the collector out of his deman by offering to work out her road tax.  The doctress, having somewhat passed the bloom of youth, made no impression upon the stony official, and therefore, instead of paying under protest, as some of her sisters do, she went upon the road and drove a cart.”
She lived most of her adult life with her husband in Middletown; one cannot but think what she would have been if her family had ‘reined her in’ at an earlier age—if that was possible—or if the Seward Institute had turned a blind eye to her eccentric dress.
Original railroad station before it was replaced by the current station in 1890.
Environment: Note Martin house on top for insect control. 
Extract from “Lehigh & Hudson River Railway Scrapbook” by Marty Feldner,
http://lhr.railfan.net/
Founding of The Warwick Valley Railroad

The Lehigh and Hudson River Railway Company is an important bridge line between New England and several of the larger railroad systems of the East. This important link had its beginning as an eleven mile railroad between Warwick, N. Y. and Greycourt, N. Y. to transport the products of the fertile Warwick Valley in the southern part of Orange County, New York, not far from the New Jersey border. The farm products of this prosperous agricultural and dairying region had for many years, prior to transportation by rail, been hauled thirty miles overland in wagons to Newburgh on the Hudson where the shipments were loaded on boats and conveyed to New York City.

In the early 1840's the New York and Erie Railroad was built through Orange County and in 1852 through direct acquisition this was extended into Jersey City which gave a more direct and much quicker route to the New York City market. This through route prompted a meeting of prominent farmers and merchants of Warwick, N. Y. in 1859, and resulted in the organization of the Warwick Valley Railroad Company. The charter to build a railroad from Warwick, N. Y. to Greycourt, N. Y. where a connection could be made with the New York and Erie, as well as its New- burgh branch, was granted in 1860.
It was not long after the close of the Civil War when extensive iron ore mines were opened near the New York-New Jersey State line, a few miles west of Warwick. The ore was taken by wagon to Warwick, N. Y., thence by rail over the Warwick Valley Railroad and the New York and Erie Railroad to Greenwood Furnace, New York now known as Arden. This was a new source of revenue for the Warwick Valley Railroad and was a favorable addition to the revenue they had been receiving from the transportation of farm and dairy products.
Extract from “Lehigh & Hudson River Railway Scrapbook” by Marty Feldner,
http://lhr.railfan.net/
With the advent of the construction of the Poughkeepsie Bridge and the extension of the Central New England and Western Railroad westward to Maybrook, the Lehigh and Hudson River interests organized the Orange County Railroad Company, in 1888, to construct a line from Greycourt to Maybrook, 10.7 miles, passing through Burnside where a connection was also made with the New York, Ontario and Western Railway.
In 1889, the Company entered into an agreement with the Pennsylvania Railroad for trackage rights over their Belvidere-Delaware Division between Belvidere, N. J. and Phillipsburg, N. J., 13.3 miles, for a period of ninety-nine years. In the same year, the South Easton and Phillipsburg Railroad Company of New Jersey and the South Easton and Phillipsburg Railroad of Pennsylvania were organized to build a bridge across the Delaware River between the cities of Phillipsburg, N. J. and Easton, Pa., where connections could be made with the Central Railroad Company of New Jersey and the Lehigh Valley Railroad. The bridge was opened in January, 1890, and leased to the Lehigh and Hudson River Railway. In 1912, the S.E.& P. Companies were consolidated with the L&H. In September, 1890, through trains began operating between Easton, Pa. and Maybrook, N. Y., thus, the dream of the first Board of Directors of the Warwick Valley Railroad became a reality, with a through route established from the coal fields of Pennsylvania to New England territory.
Comparison of the 1805 map and the 1875 Town map shows a tremendous amount of growth in the Town.  Hamlets have grown up around town, and schools were usually centrally located within each school district.
Activity: Find Hamlets & Villages.  Each school district is a different color– how many school districts?  How did this affect who you knew?  What other social centers were there?
Changes in:
A.Transportation & Geography:
Turnpikes & plant roads improving movement between population centers and markets.
1810—Bellvale (later & Monroe) Turnpike
c. 1811 Minisink & Warwick Turnpike
Goshen and State Plank Road
Warwick Valley Railroad in the 1860’s linking agricultural products with wider markets, nearness to NYC.
Exploitation of resources: Mt. Adam Granite Co., Iron mines.
B. Technology:
Inventions to improve the ability to produce & harvest more from the land.
Iron mines become more profitable.
C. Environment: Draining Black Dirt, Beaver & Muskrat Wars. See Snell’s Drowned Lands of the Wallkill:
http://www.albertwisnerlibrary.org/~wisner/Factsandhistory/History/DrownedLandsoftheWallkill.htm